The base of a reciprocating
The base of a reciprocating internal combustion engine is the engine block, which is typically made of cast iron or aluminium. The engine block contains the cylinders. In engines with more than one cylinder they are usually arranged either in 1 row (straight engine) or 2 rows (boxer engine or V engine); 3 rows are occasionally used (W engine) in contemporary engines, and other engine configurations are possible and have been used. Single cylinder engines are common for motorcycles and in small engines of machinery. Water-cooled engines contain passages in the engine block where cooling fluid circulates (the water jacket). Some small engines are air-cooled, and instead of having a water jacket the cylinder block has fins protruding away from it to cool by directly transferring heat to the air. The cylinder walls are usually finished by honing to obtain a cross hatch, which is better able to retain the oil. A too rough surface would quickly harm the engine by excessive wear on the piston.
The pistons are short cylindrical parts which seal one end of the cylinder from the high pressure of the compressed air and combustion products and slide continuously within it while the engine is in operation. The top wall of the piston is termed its crown and is typically flat or concave. Some two-stroke engines use pistons with a deflector head. Pistons are open at the bottom and hollow except for an integral reinforcement structure (the piston web). When an engine is working the gas pressure in the combustion chamber exerts a force on the piston crown which is transferred through its web to a gudgeon pin. Each piston has rings fitted around its circumference that mostly prevent the gases from leaking into the crankcase or the oil into the combustion chamber. A ventilation system drives the small amount of gas that escape past the pistons during normal operation (the blow-by gases) out of the crankcase so that it does not accumulate contaminating the oil and creating corrosion. In two-stroke gasoline engines the crankcase is part of the air?fuel path and due to the continuous flow of it they do not need a separate crankcase ventilation system.
Content for beginners car fans
Cars are a rather complicated layouts and worth to each control you have knowledge of the most relevant information in this regard. First of all, take a look at the information on the basic elements of the construction of the car. These include not only the engine and steering wheel, but also many related parts, for example, with the propulsion system. More than one part of the car is completely black magic to people not connected in any way with the automotive industry. Some knowledge in this area is necessary, for example when driving course, but a lot of people quickly forget obtained message. It is worth it to remember, especially because it's easier, we can use the machine as we know it.
Exclusive cars - only for the richest
Luxury car brand virtually since their inception are surrounded with an aura of mystery for average earners. Although over the years the exclusive, global brand cars were beginning to reveal its secrets to the outside world and show their offer, however, to this day, some car models are intended only for the richest people in the world. Luxury cars are a sign of prestige and good luck, while allowing very stand out in the crowd. Most of them are made of special materials and to achieve a surprisingly high speed. Another advantage of these cars is equipped with many different, sometimes very expensive gadgets.